Electricity in Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric (K-Electric) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 42 independent power producers (IPPs) that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.

Electricity generation has increased by 3.18% in 2015 as a result of Government of Pakistan (GoP) efforts and China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The country has begun diversifying its energy producing capacity by investing in coal, nuclear energy, solar energy and wind energy to help offset the energy shortage while larger projects greater than 1000 MW such as the Diamer-Bhasha Dam, Kohala Hydropower Project, Pakistan Port Qasim Power Project, Sahiwal Coal Power Project, Thar Engro Coal Power Project, Hub Coal Power Project and new nuclear plants are now under construction or planned
Pakistan electricity sector is a developing market. For years, the matter of balancing the country’s supply against the demand for electricity had remained a largely unresolved matter. The country faced significant challenges in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. Electricity generators were seeking a parity in returns for both domestic and foreign investors indicating it to be one of the key issues in overseeing a surge in electricity generation when the country was facing growing shortages. Other problems included lack of efficiency, rising demands for energy, and political instability.[2] Provincial and federal agencies, who are the largest consumers, often do not pay their bills.[3]At one point electricity generation had shrunk by up to 50% due to an over-reliance on fossil fuels.[4] The country was hit by its worst power crisis in 2007 when production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts followed suit.[5] Load Shedding and power blackouts had become severe in Pakistan before 2016.[6]

As late as 2015 massive long-standing electricity shortages continued with long-standing failure to provide reliable service and rampant corruption being met by public protests, unauthorized connections, and refusal by consumers to pay for intermittent service.[7][8][9]
Installed capacity

Electricity – total installed capacity: 25,100 MW (2015)[10]
Electricity – Sources (2014)
fossil fuel – 14,635 MW – 64.2% of total(oil-35.2% + gas-29%)
hydro – 6,611 MW – 29% of total
nuclear – 1,322 MW – 5.8% of total
average demand-17,000 MW
shortfall-between 5,000 MW and 6,000 MW

There are four major power producers in country: WAPDA, K-Electric, IPPs and Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).

The break-up of the installed capacity of each of these power producers (as of Jan-2012) is as follows:[citation needed]


Tarbela Dam, Tarbela, Haripur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) 3478 MW
Mangla Dam, Mangla, Mirpur District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) 1000 MW
Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project, Attock, Attock District, Punjab 1450 MW
Warsak Dam, Peshawar, Peshawar District, KPK 243 MW
Chashma Barrage, Chashma, Mianwali District, Punjab 184 MW
Duber Khwar Dam/Duber Khwar Hydroelectric Plant, Pattan, Kohistan District, KPK 130 MW
Allai Khwar Hydropower Plant, Allai Tehsil, Battagram, Battagram District, KPK 121 MW
Khan Khwar Hydropower Plant, Besham, Shangla District, KPK 72 MW
Jagran Hydropower Plant AJK 30 MW
Jabban Hydropower Plant, Jabban, Malakand District, KPK 22 MW
Rasul Barrage, Punjab 22 MW
Dargai Hydropower Plant, Dargai, Malakand District, KPK 20 MW
Gomal Zam Dam, Khjori Kach, South Waziristan Agency, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) 17 MW
Nandipur Hydropower Plant, Gujranwala, Gujranwala District, Punjab 14 MW
Shadiwal Hydropower Plant, Shadiwal, Gujrat District, Punjab 13.5 MW
Kurram Garhi Hydropower Plant, Kurram Garhi, Bannu, Bannu District, KPK 4 MW
Renala Khurd Hydropower Plant, Renala Khurd, Okara District, Punjab 1 MW
Chitral Hydropower Plant, Chitral, Chitral District, KPK 1 MW
Total Hydel 6,823 MW

WAPDA Thermal

Guddu Thermal Power Plant, Guddu, Sindh 1655 MW
Muzaffargarh Thermal Power Plant, Muzaffargarh, Muzaffargarh District, Punjab 1350 MW
Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Jamshoro, Jamshoro District, Sindh 850 MW
Faisalabad Gas Turbine Power Plant, Faisalabad, Faisalabad District, Punjab 244 MW
Multan Gas Turbine Power Plant, Multan, Multan District, Punjab 195 MW
Kotri Gas Turbine Power Plant, Kotri, Jamshoro District, Sindh 174 MW
Larkana Thermal Power Plant, Larkana, Larkana District, Sindh 150 MW
Faisalabad Steam Power Plant, Faisalabad, Faisalabad District, Punjab 132 MW
Shahdra Gas Turbine Power Plant, Shahdra, Lahore, Lahore District, Punjab 59 MW
Panjgur Gas Turbine Power Plant, Panjgur, Panjgur District, Balochistan 39 MW
Quetta Thermal Power Plant, Quetta, Quetta District, Balochistan 35 MW
Pasni Thermal Power Plant, Pasni, Gwadar District, Balochistan 17 MW
Total Thermal 4811 MW

WAPDA’s total hydel and thermal capacity is 11,272 MW. Hydel electricity generated by WAPDA varies between two extremities, i.e., between minimum of 2,414 MW and maximum of 6,761 MW depending upon the river flow.


Korangi Power Complex, Combined Cycle Power Plant (KPC) 247 MW
Korangi Gas Turbine Power Station, Korangi (KGTPS) 100 MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, SITE (STGTPS) 100 MW
Thermal Power Station, Bin Qasim (BQPS-I) 1260 MW
Combined Cycle Power Plant (BQPS-II) 560 MW
Combined Cycle Power Plant (BQPS-III) Construction Initiated 900 MW

K-Electric total generation capacity is 1756 MW.

Independent Power Producers (IPPs)

AES Lalpir Limited, Mehmood Kot, Muzaffargarh District, Punjab 362 MW
AES Pak Gen, Mehmood Kot, Muzaffargarh District, Punjab 365 MW
Altern Energy Limited, Tehsil Fateh Jang, Attock District 29 MW
Atlas Power, Sheikhupura District 225 MW
Attock Gen Limited, Morgah, Rawalpindi District 165 MW
CMEC Power (Pvt.) Limited 330 MW
DHA Cogen Limited, Karachi, Karachi South District 94 MW
Eastern Power Company, Pasrur, Sialkot District 152.5 MW
Engro Powergen Qadirpur Limited (Formerly Engro Energy (Pvt.) Limited), Ghotki, Ghotki District, Sindh 226.5 MW
Fauji Kabirwala Power Company Limited (FKPCL), Kabirwala, District Khanewal 157 MW
First Tri-Star Modaraba 110 MW
Foundation Power Company Daharki Limited (FPCDL), Daharki, Ghotki District, Sindh 179 MW
Grange Holdings Limited Power Plant, Arifwala Tehsil, Pakpattan District, Punjab 165 MW
Green Electric (Pvt.) Limited 188 MW
Gujranwala Energy Limited (GEL), Gulistan Group, Sanguwali, Wazirabad Tehsil, Gujranwala District, Punjab 201.5 MW
Gul Ahmad Energy Limited (GAEL), Korangi District, Karachi 136 MW
Habibullah Coastal Power Company (HCPC) (Pvt.) Limited, Quetta, Balochistan 140 MW
Halmore Power Generation Company (Pvt.) Limited, Bhikki, Sheikhupura District, Punjab 225 MW
HUBCO Narowal Power Plant (HNPP), Narowal District, Punjab 225 MW
HUBCO Hub Power Plant, Hub, Lasbela District, Balochistan 1292 MW
Intergen (Pvt.) Limited 165 MW
Japan Power Generation, Lahore 120 MW
Kohinoor Energy Limited, Lahore 131 MW
Kot Addu Power Company Limited (Privatized) 1638 MW
Liberty Power Limited, Ghotki 232 MW
Liberty Power Tech. Limited 202 MW
Lucky Electric Power Company Limited 660 MW
Nishat Chunian Power 200 MW
Nishat Power Limited 200 MW
Orient Power Company (Pvt.) Limited 225 MW
Radian Energy Power Generation Company (Pvt.) Limited 164 MW
Rousch Power, Khanewal 412 MW
Saba Power Company, Sheikhupura 114 MW
Saif Power Plant Qadirabad, Sahiwal 225 MW
Sapphire Electric Company Limited 235 MW
Siddiqsons Energy Limited 350 MW
Sindh Nooriabad Power Company Phase-II (Pvt.) Limited 52 MW
Sitara Energy 80 MW
Southern Electric Power Company Limited, Raiwind 110 MW
Star Power Generation Limited 133.5 MW
Tapal Energy Limited, Karachi 126 MW
Uch (Uch-I and Uch-II) Power Limited, Dera Murad Jamali, Nasirabad 990 MW

Total generation capacity of IPPs by the end of 2016 was 11612 MW.[11]

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission


Total electricity generated from PAEC is 1127 MW.

Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO)

Nandipur Power Project 425 MW

Solar Energy

Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park, Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur District, Punjab 100 MW[12]

Wind Energy

Yunus Energy Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 50 MW
Metro Wind Power Co Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 50 MW
Tenaga Generai Limited, Gharo, Sindh 49 MW
Gul Ahmed Wind Power Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 50 MW
Master Wind Energy Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 52 MW
FFC Energy Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 50 MW
Zorlu Enerji Pakistan, Jhimpir, Sindh 56 MW
Tapal Wind Energy Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 30 MW
HydroChina Dawood Power Limited, Gharo, Sindh 49 MW
Foundation Wind Energy-I Limited, Gharo, Sindh 50 MW
Foundation Wind Energy-II Private Limited, Gharo, Sindh 50 MW

The total power generation capacity of Pakistan is 21,143 MW and the electricity demand (as of April 2010) is 14,500 MW and PEPCO is merely generating 10,000 MW.